Carl David Mildenberger

Current positions
2016-today: International Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Department of Philosophy, University of St. Gallen, Switzerland
2014-today: Lecturer in economics, Zeppelin University Friedrichshafen, Germany

Past positions
2012-2017: Lecturer in philosophy and economics, Universität Witten/Herdecke, Germany

Research interests
Areas of specialization: political philosophy, applied ethics (notably ethics of economics), political economy, economic theory of conflict

Areas of competence: philosophy of the social sciences, normative philosophy of fiction, normative philosophy of language, business ethics, history of economic thought (from Smith to Hayek), history of political thought (Mill & Hume), French phenomenology (Levinas)


2013-2016: PhD in philosophy
University of St Andrews and University of Stirling (SASP), Scotland. Thesis: “Commutative Justice”. Supervisors: Rowan Cruft, James Harris, Elizabeth Ashford. Committee: Ben Sachs, Alexander Voorhoeve.

2012-2013: MLitt in philosophy
University of St Andrews and University of Stirling (SASP), Scotland. Dissertation: “A reason to be rational”.

2010-2012: PhD in economics
University of Witten, Germany. Thesis: “Committing to evil - Evil actions and evil social institutions in virtual worlds from an economic perspective”. Supervisor: Chrysostomos Mantzavinos. Committee: Chrysostomos Mantzavinos, Jens Harbecke.

2009-2010: MSc in business and economics
FernUniversität Hagen, Germany. Dissertation: “From anarchy to state”.

2006-2008: BA in philosophy
Institut Catholique de Paris, France. Dissertation: “Aristote et la scientificité de l’éthique économique”.

2003-2006: BA in business administration
University of St. Gallen, Switzerland. Dissertation: “Der Ethics Officer in amerikanischen Unternehmen - Vorbild für Europa?”.

Articles & chapters

  • Mildenberger, C.D. (forthcoming). Corporate Responsibilization. Journal of Applied Philosophy.
  • Mildenberger, C.D. (2017). Economic Evil and the Other. Revue de philosophie économique. 18, 141-160.
  • Mildenberger, C.D. (2017). Spontaneous Disorder. Journal of Institutional Economics. DOI 10.1017/S1744137417000492.
  • Mildenberger, C.D. (2017). A Liberal Theory of Externalities? Philosophical Studies. DOI 10.1007/s11098-017-0950-1.
  • Mildenberger, C.D. (2017). Expressives, Majoratives, and Ineffability. Kriterion. 31(2), 1-15.
  • Mildenberger, C.D. (2017). Virtual Killing. Philosophical Studies. 174(1), 185-203.
  • Mildenberger, C.D. (2015). Virtual World Order – The Economics and Organization of Virtual Pirates. Public Choice, 164, 401-421.
  • Mildenberger, C.D. (2015). “Games and Evil.” In: Philosophical Perspectives on Play. Ryall, E., Russell, W., & M. MacLean (eds). London: Routledge.
  • Mildenberger, C.D. (2014). Das Böse aus Ökonomischer Sicht. Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Unternehmensethik, 15(3), 435-444.
  • Mildenberger, C.D. (2013). The Constitutional Political Economy of Virtual Worlds. Constitutional Political Economy, 24(3), 239–264.

  • Mildenberger, C.D. (2016). Commutative Justice. PhD thesis in philosophy, St Andrews: University of St Andrews.
  • Mildenberger, C.D. (2013). Economics and Social Conflict. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.


  • “Comparing CSFs in virtual worlds”, Workshop in Economics and Conflict, Paris (France), 2015
  • “A reason to be rational”, Postgraduate Session of the Joint Session of the Aristotelian Society & the Mind Association, Cambridge (UK), 2014
  • "Better money", Universität Düsseldorf (Germany), 2017
"Equivalency, justice in exchange, and markets"
  • Deutscher Kongress für Philosophie, Berlin (Germany), 2017
"Morals and Non-Ideal Markets"
  • Forum Wirtschaftsphilosophie, Berlin (Germany), 2017
"Good grey markets?"
  • European Congress of Analytic Philosophy (ECAP 9), Munich (Germany), 2017
"Currency, culture, markets - preconditions and moral status of non-cash markets"
  • Meeting of the Arbeitsgruppe für Wirtschaftsphilosophie und Ethik der DGPhil, St. Gallen (Switzerland), 2017
"A reason to be rational"
  • Deutscher Kongress für Philosophie, Münster (Germany), 2014
  • World Congress of Philosophy, Athens (Greece), 2013
"Virtual killing"
  • Philosophy at Play, Gloucester (UK), 2013
  • 9th International Conference Philosophy of Computer Games, Bergen (Norway), 2013
  • International Association for Computing and Philosophy World Congress, Birmingham (UK), 2012
  • Economic Justice and Political Action, Barcelona (Spain), 2015
  • GAP.9, Jahrestagung Gesellschaft für Philosophie, Osnabrück (Germany), 2015
"Evil economic agents and the other"
  • 2nd International Conference Economic Philosophy, Strasbourg (France), 2014
"Virtual world order"
  • International Society for New Insitutional Economics (ISNIE) Annual Conference, Florence (Italy), 2013
  • International Workshop in Political Economy, Silvaplana (Switzerland), 2012
  • European School of New Institutional Economics (ESNIE), Corsica (France), 2012
"Against Systems"
  • Swiss Society for Quality Management in Health Care, Baden (Switzerland), 2009
"Comparing CSFs in virtual worlds"
  • European Public Choice Society, Annual Meeting, Freiburg (Germany), 2016
  • Association for Public Economic Theory, Annual Meeting, Luxembourg (Luxembourg), 2015

Universität Witten/Herdecke
  • Graduate course “Game Theory & Social Structure”
  • Graduate course “Social Epistemology and Collective Action”
  • Graduate course “Philosophy and Society: The Question of Evil”
  • Graduate course “Philosophy of the Social Sciences”
  • Undergraduate course “New Institutional Economics”
University of St Andrews
  • Tutor for undergraduate course “Ethical controversies”
  • Tutor for undergraduate course “Microeconomics”
University of St. Gallen
  • Undergraduate course "Markets and Morals"
  • Undergraduate course "Bioethics: Questions of Life and Death"
Zeppelin Universität Friedrichshafen
  • Undergraduate course “Microeconomics (and Philosophy)”
  • Undergraduate course “Advanced Microeconomics (and Philosophy)”

Awards, prizes, grants, scholarships
  • 2-year International Postdoctoral Fellowship (IPF), Research Commission of the University of St. Gallen
  • 600th Year Scholar; 3-year PhD scholarship, University of St Andrews
  • 1-year doctoral scholarship, DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service)
  • Shortlisted for the Society for Institutional and Organizational Economics (SIOE) Best Dissertation Award 2012
  • Zeppelin University Best Teaching Award 2017, Zeppelin University Friedrichshafen

Public outreach / knowledge valorization
Short pieces in non-specialist journals/papers/blogs and public presentations
Non-academic jobs
  • Mildenberger Philosophie + Wirtschaft (Grenzach-Wyhlen, Germany): owner and found of consultancy for philosophical HR training and development
  • Scholz & Friends Reputation, Berlin (Germany): worked as consultant for corporate responsibility
  • PwC, Frankfurt (Germany): worked in Business conduct office

German: mother tongue
English and French: fluent
Russian and Spanish: basic knowledge

Chrysostomos Mantzavinos, University of Athens
Elizabeth Ashford, University of St Andrews
Rowan Cruft, University of Stirling
Dieter Thomä, University of St. Gallen
Ben Sachs, University of St Andrews
Marcia Baron, Indiana University
Alex Voorhoeve, London School of Economics