Carl David Mildenberger

Current positions
2016-today: International Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Department of Philosophy, University of St. Gallen, Switzerland
2014-today: Lecturer in economics, Zeppelin University Friedrichshafen, Germany

Past positions
2012-2017: Lecturer in philosophy and economics, Universität Witten/Herdecke, Germany

Research interests
Areas of specialization: political philosophy, applied ethics (notably normative philosophy of economics and business ethics), political economy

Areas of competence: philosophy of the social sciences, philosophy of action, normative philosophy of fiction, normative philosophy of language, economic theory of conflict, New Institutional Economics


2013-2016: PhD in philosophy
University of St Andrews and University of Stirling (SASP), Scotland. Thesis: “Commutative Justice”. Supervisors: Rowan Cruft, James Harris, Elizabeth Ashford. Committee: Ben Sachs, Alexander Voorhoeve.

2012-2013: MLitt in philosophy
University of St Andrews and University of Stirling (SASP), Scotland. Dissertation: “A reason to be rational”.

2010-2012: PhD in economics
University of Witten, Germany. Thesis: “Committing to evil - Evil actions and evil social institutions in virtual worlds from an economic perspective”. Supervisor: Chrysostomos Mantzavinos. Committee: Chrysostomos Mantzavinos, Jens Harbecke.

2009-2010: MSc in business and economics
FernUniversität Hagen, Germany. Dissertation: “From anarchy to state”.

2006-2008: BA in philosophy
Institut Catholique de Paris, France. Dissertation: “Aristote et la scientificité de l’éthique économique”.

2003-2006: BA in business administration
University of St. Gallen, Switzerland. Dissertation: “Der Ethics Officer in amerikanischen Unternehmen - Vorbild für Europa?”.

Articles & chapters

  • Mildenberger, C.D. (forthcoming). “Währung, Kultur, Markt – Bedingungen und normativer Status von Nicht-Bargeld-Märkten.” in: Beschorner, T. and D. Sindermann (eds.). Ökomie ist Kultur. Weimar: Metropolis.
  • Mildenberger, C.D. & A. Pietri (2018). How does size matter for military success? Evidence from virtual worlds. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization. 154, 137-155.
  • Mildenberger, C.D. (2018). A reason to be rational. Inquiry. DOI 10.1080/0020174X.2018.1470570.
  • Mildenberger, C.D. (2018). Corporate Responsibilization. Journal of Applied Philosophy. DOI 10.1111/japp.12290.
  • Mildenberger, C.D. (2018). A Liberal Theory of Externalities? Philosophical Studies. 175(9), 2105-2123.
  • Mildenberger, C.D. (2017). Economic Evil and the Other. Revue de philosophie économique. 18, 141-160.
  • Mildenberger, C.D. (2017). Spontaneous Disorder. Journal of Institutional Economics. DOI 10.1017/S1744137417000492.
  • Mildenberger, C.D. (2017). Expressives, Majoratives, and Ineffability. Kriterion. 31(2), 1-15.
  • Mildenberger, C.D. (2017). Virtual Killing. Philosophical Studies. 174(1), 185-203.
  • Mildenberger, C.D. (2015). Virtual World Order – The Economics and Organization of Virtual Pirates. Public Choice, 164, 401-421.
  • Mildenberger, C.D. (2015). “Games and Evil.” In: Philosophical Perspectives on Play. Ryall, E., Russell, W., & M. MacLean (eds). London: Routledge.
  • Mildenberger, C.D. (2014). Das Böse aus Ökonomischer Sicht. Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Unternehmensethik, 15(3), 435-444.
  • Mildenberger, C.D. (2013). The Constitutional Political Economy of Virtual Worlds. Constitutional Political Economy, 24(3), 239–264.

  • Mildenberger, C.D. (2020). Commutative Justice. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Mildenberger, C.D. (2013). Economics and Social Conflict. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.


  • "Behavioral risk management", MEDICA 2018, Düsseldorf (Germany), 2018
  • "CIRS im Spannungsfeld von Recht und Ethik", CIRRNET Annual Meeting Bern (Switzerland), 2018
  • "Improving Money", Universität Düsseldorf (Germany), 2017
  • “Comparing CSFs in virtual worlds”, Workshop in Economics and Conflict, Paris (France), 2015
  • “A reason to be rational”, Postgraduate Session of the Joint Session of the Aristotelian Society & the Mind Association, Cambridge (UK), 2014
"Lessons from effective altruism for ethical investment"
  • Forum Wirtschaftsphilosophie, Munich (Germany), 2019
"The future of work and the fate of robots"
  • MANCEPT Workshops for Political Theory, Manchester (UK), 2018
  • Robots Workshop, St. Gallen (Switzerland), 2019
"Equivalency, justice in exchange, and markets"
  • Deutscher Kongress für Philosophie, Berlin (Germany), 2017
"Morals and Non-Ideal Markets"
  • Forum Wirtschaftsphilosophie, Berlin (Germany), 2017
"Good grey markets"
  • European Congress of Analytic Philosophy (ECAP 9), Munich (Germany), 2017
"Currency, culture, markets - preconditions and moral status of non-cash markets"
  • Meeting of the Arbeitsgruppe für Wirtschaftsphilosophie und Ethik der DGPhil, St. Gallen (Switzerland), 2017
"A reason to be rational"
  • Deutscher Kongress für Philosophie, Münster (Germany), 2014
  • World Congress of Philosophy, Athens (Greece), 2013
"Virtual killing"
  • Philosophy at Play, Gloucester (UK), 2013
  • 9th International Conference Philosophy of Computer Games, Bergen (Norway), 2013
  • International Association for Computing and Philosophy World Congress, Birmingham (UK), 2012
  • Economic Justice and Political Action, Barcelona (Spain), 2015
  • GAP.9, Jahrestagung Gesellschaft für Philosophie, Osnabrück (Germany), 2015
"Evil economic agents and the other"
  • 2nd International Conference Economic Philosophy, Strasbourg (France), 2014
"Virtual world order"
  • International Society for New Insitutional Economics (ISNIE) Annual Conference, Florence (Italy), 2013
  • International Workshop in Political Economy, Silvaplana (Switzerland), 2012
  • European School of New Institutional Economics (ESNIE), Corsica (France), 2012
"Against Systems"
  • Swiss Society for Quality Management in Health Care, Baden (Switzerland), 2009
"Comparing CSFs in virtual worlds"
  • European Public Choice Society, Annual Meeting, Freiburg (Germany), 2016
  • Association for Public Economic Theory, Annual Meeting, Luxembourg (Luxembourg), 2015
“On the effects of democratizing firms for the normative status of the market”
  • Joint Session of the Aristotelian Society and the Mind Association, Oxford (UK), 2018
  • Colloquium for political philosophy, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland), 2018
“Improving money”
  • Forum Wirtschaftsphilosophie, Mùˆnster (Germany), 2018

Universität Witten/Herdecke
  • Graduate course “Game Theory & Social Structure”
  • Graduate course “Social Epistemology and Collective Action”
  • Graduate course “Philosophy and Society: The Question of Evil”
  • Graduate course “Philosophy of the Social Sciences”
  • Undergraduate course “New Institutional Economics”
University of St Andrews
  • Tutor for undergraduate course “Ethical controversies”
  • Tutor for undergraduate course “Microeconomics”
University of St. Gallen
  • Undergraduate course "Markets and Morals"
  • Undergraduate course "Bioethics: Questions of Life and Death"
  • Undergraduate course "Society, Markets, Money"
  • Undergraduate course "Philosophie der Wirtschaft" (co-teaching with Chris Paret)
Zeppelin Universität Friedrichshafen
  • Undergraduate course “Microeconomics (and Philosophy)”
  • Undergraduate course “Advanced Microeconomics (and Philosophy)”
  • Undergraduate course "Political Economy"
  • Undergraduate course "Markets and Society"

Awards, prizes, grants, scholarships
  • 3-year International Postdoctoral Fellowship (IPF), Research Commission of the University of St. Gallen
  • 600th Year Scholar; 3-year PhD scholarship, University of St Andrews
  • 1-year doctoral scholarship, DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service)
  • Shortlisted for the Society for Institutional and Organizational Economics (SIOE) Best Dissertation Award 2012
  • Zeppelin University Best Teaching Award 2017, Zeppelin University Friedrichshafen

Public outreach / knowledge valorization
Short pieces in non-specialist journals/papers/blogs and public presentations
Non-academic jobs
  • Mildenberger Philosophie + Wirtschaft (Grenzach-Wyhlen, Germany): owner and found of consultancy for philosophical HR training and development
  • Scholz & Friends Reputation, Berlin (Germany): worked as consultant for corporate responsibility
  • PwC, Frankfurt (Germany): worked in Business conduct office

German: mother tongue
English and French: fluent
Russian and Spanish: basic knowledge

Chrysostomos Mantzavinos, University of Athens
Elizabeth Ashford, University of St Andrews
Rowan Cruft, University of Stirling
Dieter Thomä, University of St. Gallen
Ben Sachs, University of St Andrews
Marcia Baron, Indiana University
Alex Voorhoeve, London School of Economics